Sunday, December 22, 2013


War means different things to different people. For business connected with war armament and supplies, it is an occasion to make quick and big money. For the ruling politicians, it provides a fertile ground for jingoism to project themselves as saviors of the nation and to make political capital out of it. However, war means something else for the soldiers and officers who are used as cannon fodder. A few of those who are killed in some dramatic battle might receive a measure of recognition by way of posthumous awards and rewards, but most remain anonymous, mere statistics for the chronicle writers. The worst fate though befalls those who are captured by the enemy. We as civilians fail to measure the trauma which these wagers of war i.e. the soldiers ,airmen and sailors ,endure on the battlefield and behind it as prisoners of war.
During a speech aired on the BBC in Dec,1945 Sir Winston Churchill defined a prisoner of war as “ a man who tries to kill you and fails, and then asks you not to kill him”. Articles 4 and 5 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (POW)of August 12, 1949 define a prisoner of war as one who, while engaged in combat under orders of his or her government, is captured by the armed forces of the enemy. As such, he or she is entitled to the combatant's privilege of immunity from the municipal law of the capturing state for warlike acts which do not amount to breaches of the law of armed conflict.
Contrary to the spirit of the Geneva Convention, the Iraq-Iran war, the gulf war ,the Yom-Kippur war, the Vietnam war and the Korean conflict to name a few, have shown that modern nation consider the POW compound as an extension of the battlefield. In doing so, they have used a variety of tactics and pressures, including physical and mental mistreatment, torture and medical neglect to exploit POWs for propaganda purposes and to obtain military information.
The first thing that a soldier experiences as a POW is an exposure to a completely new environment and culture. A environment in which he becomes the hunted while his jailors become the hunter. Prison life – even for short periods of time – can lead to any number of physical and mental health problems. A recent prison health study carried out in European jails found that inmates were found to suffer from low blood pressure. In addition, most of them were disorientated, unable to concentrate and experienced problems with their memories – for example, sudden “mind voids”. Scientists also observed an effect on the senses. With touch and sight diminished, inmates’ sense of hearing often became heightened, causing them to become “obsessed” with noise and disturbed by unexpected sounds. Furthermore, prisoners may develop personality changes, or even worse, personality disorders, mental illness and brain disease.
 Military training is such that a soldier is desensitized towards human misery and the killer instinct normally dormant in civilians is horned to such an extent that a soldier will not think twice if ordered to attack the enemy. Since the jailors themselves are soldiers their behavior towards a POW is hence far from humane.
The prisoner is subjected to harsh conditions .The Geneva Convention states that Confinement is illegal (POWs can't be held in prison cells unless it is for their own protection), but detention is allowed -- they may be kept within certain boundaries. However, their location must be as far from the fighting as possible. Besides being held in a special "camp," prisoners of war are supposed to be granted all of the rights and privileges that their captor grants to its own armed forces, at least in terms of food, water, shelter, clothing, exercise, correspondence, religious practice and other basic human needs. Paper treaties aside the reality is that this section of the Geneva Convention has never been followed.
The actual treatment got by POW’s can be best understood from the images of blindfolded Afghan captives subjected to “sensory deprivation” like covered goggles, earmuffs and facemasks kneeling shackled in wire cages at Camp X-Ray – a detention center on an isolated U.S. out spot on the edge of Fidel Castro’s Cuba
Starvation and the lack of sanitation are quite common even in civilian jails. The concentration camps of World War 2 may not be there any more but such death camps do exist even to this day in African nations like Sudan, Congo and Somalia. 
 Furthermore, some of the 800 odd pages of the Geneva convention talks about the protection of POW’s against “insults and public curiosity” (Article 13) where in a country cannot display POW’s as trophies in front of the media. The United States  did just that during the gulf war where U.S. networks showed  footage of Iraqi soldiers surrendering or being detained during military operation.
Article 22 of the Geneva Convention states that the buildings in which the POWs are quartered must meet the same general standards as the quarters made available to the forces of the captor. But the ground fact is that normally POW camps normally are structures built by the prisoners themselves. Hygiene is almost impossible with the bare floor as a mattress and a bucket for a toilet.
The trauma of a POW does not end with the ending of hostilities. In 1947-48, when the newly created Pakistan unleashed tribals and its army in Jammu & Kashmir, the word terrorism was not in vogue. In this war between India and Pakistan the latter’s troops tortured and dismembered many captured Indian Armed Forces personnel. While declared Indian prisoners of war were kept in far from satisfactory conditions, the worst case of prolonged inhuman torture has been the wrongful confinement and non-acknowledgement by Pakistan of 54 Indian Armed Forces officers and ranks like Cpt. S. Bhattacharya and Cpt. Avinesh Sharma. The harsh condition of their existence in jail is highlighted by the following words in Victoria Schoffield's book, Bhutto - Trial and Execution:
In addition to these conditions at Kot Lakhpat, for three months Bhutto was subjected to a peculiar kind of harassment. His cell, separated from a barrack area by a 10 foot high wall, did not prevent him from hearing horrific shrieks and screams at night from the other side of the wall. One of Mr Bhutto's lawyers made enquiries amongst the jail staff and ascertained that they were in fact Indian prisoners-of-war who had been rendered delinquent and mental during the course of the 1971 war.
The evidence that these 54 Indians exist can be found in the stories told by freed Indians like Roop Lal , who served 26 yrs in a Pakistani jail and the letters which were smuggled out.
There have been well documented cases of POW’s being used as guinea pigs in Nazi Germany during world war 2 for tests ranging from hypothermia to testing the effect of poison gas. The modern parlance is the use of Vietnamese prisoners by the US to test the effects of Agent Orange.
On the mental side is the fear for once life as well as the thought of what will happen of his family back home. A day to day existence and the very thought of what may happen the next minute is enough to drive a person mad. Long periods of confinement, especially of the solitary kind, also result in a feeling of abandonment not only by his superiors but also his country. The POW is subjected to Psychological warfare by his captors to convince him that his cause is unjust and hopeless so as to weaken his will. The main finding of recent studies conducted on POW’s exposed to severe trauma under captivity was the characteristic and significant prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with alexithymia and suicidal behavior .It has also been analyzed that methods used in torture were similar to those later used by the torture survivors in their suicidal behavior. The Stockholm syndrome is also experienced by some prisoners who after long periods of interaction with his/her captors develop a type of kinship with the incarcerator’s.
 When the prisoner of war returns home he returns back to a completely different situation. On the professional side, upon repatriation, POWs can expect their actions to be reviewed, both as to circumstances of capture and conduct during detention. While on the home side chances are that things will not be the way they were when the soldier went to war. Wife’s may have got remarried, infants may have grown up, parents may have passed away. PTSD can also emerge many years after the former prisoners of war have been liberated and readjusted to life. Sometimes this happens when other events take place in his/her life such as death of a spouse, aging, and physical limitations. Unfortunately many sufferers of PTSD turn to alcohol and drugs to help them cope with the symptoms. Treatments do exist some of which include cognitive behavior therapy, group therapy, exposure therapy and drug treatments but in a country like India where basic health care is hard to find and where mental illness is  taboo , proper treatment is almost non existent. Drug treatments include use of psychotropic drugs like Valium ,Xanax , Serzone, Effexor and Elavil and  anti-depressants such as Zoloft and Prozac but these carry with them the risk of dependency and addiction.
The families of the former POWs are also affected by this disorder in a great way.  They watch their loved one trying to cope with this disorder and feel helpless and are unsure of what to do. It is very important that the families become involved in the treatment plan to provide support and encouragement.  Some things that can be done to help the survivor are listening, spending time with them, if they permit, and most of all be patient and love them.
The U.S. war against terrorism has added a new dimension to the question of POW’s. Afghanistan and now Iraq have both shown that civilian militia is taking over the role of soldiers. During the “war on terror,” there have been repeated indications of brutality and abuse against detained terrorist suspects. Detainees in Afghanistan have apparently been killed during interrogation (including two in separate incidents in December 2002 whose deaths the US Army says it is still investigating) and many others have reported suffering abuse similar to that recorded at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. There have also been repeated suggestions that senior Al-Qaeda figures in captivity are being subjected to actions such as “water-boarding,” a form of torture in which the victim is held under water, or that medical treatment for wounds suffered during capture has been withheld. The Bush administration has stated that the Geneva Conventions apply to the war in Iraq, but asserts that they are not applicable to detainees held as part of the wider campaign against Al-Qaeda.
There is no doubt, however, that torture and inhuman treatment of all military detainees are forbidden under both international and U.S. law. Even if the full protection of the Geneva Conventions are not available to terrorist suspects, it remains beyond dispute that prohibitions against torture and inhuman treatment form part of customary international law, which is binding on all military operations during armed conflict. They are also forbidden by the Torture Convention, which the United States has ratified. This forbids not only torture, but also cruel and inhumane treatment.
There have been repeated allegations that some terrorist suspects have been turned over to third countries where they may be tortured – a process known as rendition. International law is clear that states cannot get around the prohibition against torture by farming it out to other countries. The Convention against Torture forbids sending anyone to a state where “there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.”
For the Third Geneva Convention to have any real utility inside the camp, its contents must be known to those inside—prisoners and guards. Article 39 requires that the camp commander have a copy of the convention in his possession. If one goes and asks a common soldier in the Indian army what is the Geneva convention , seven out of ten times the answer will normally be  “Sahabji ko pata hoga”(my officer will know)which should not be the case .
Clearly, prisoners of war lose their freedom. But they are not criminals. They are enemy soldiers for whom participation in the war has come to a halt. The hard fact remains that until there are wars, problems created by them like POW’s will continue to exist.

~Amey Kantak
( The above essay won the first prize at PS Ramani Foundation all Goa essay competition in 2007)

Wednesday, November 20, 2013


The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom. ~Isaac Asimov,
Technology and society have a symbiotic relationship .Through out history technological advancements have influenced changes in society. In fact, many historical eras are identified by their dominant technology: Stone Age, Iron Age, Bronze Age, Industrial Age and Information Age. Technology-driven changes have been particularly evident in the past century. Automobiles have created a more mobile, spread-out society; aircraft and improved communications have led to a "smaller" world and improved sanitation, agriculture, and medicine have extended life expectancy.
Technology has been advancing at a rapid pace due to the encouragement of our society. We, as a society crave the newest inventions and obsess over the power that we are able to achieve with these new inventions. Having said that, in the course of human history, mankind has never had at its disposal as much effective power, energy, and material as it does today. And all of this is a product of technology and its progress; and technology is no longer only an instrument, but a world-changing, a world-shaping, a world-making factor.
Proportionate with this power, human responsibility ought to be increasing--indeed, at an explosive rate. Today more than ever before, huge ethical and moral problems have evolved in step with the rise of technological power--with the power to impose on the non-human environment or nature, and the power to manipulate life, including human life.
Westernization has changed the social ethos in India. Children today are born in a technology-savvy world. We have grown overly dependent on IT and IT-enabled tools like the internet and cellular telephony. As C.P. Snow had once said
‘Technology... is a queer thing. It brings you great gifts with one hand, and it stabs you in the back with the other.’
Exposure to these technologies has laid bare Indian society and culture to a Pandora’s Box of pros and cons. One such technology is the internet.In the 1980’s it was common for most middle to high-income households to have a television set in their home. Now in the 21st century it would be uncommon for a household to not have a computer connection to the internet
The Internet has been a wonderful advancement in technology in the sense that it has successful connected people worldwide. It has created a global community of sorts. IT and IT-enabled tools such as LAN, wide area networks (WAN) and mobile telephony have led to sharing of experiences and knowledge, thereby linking people to opportunities and creative outlets that contribute to their continued growth.
The Internet offers a vast amount of resources that are otherwise not available in any one geographical location. Facts that can be found using search engines are now made available to us in seconds, as opposed to the hours that would have been spent looking thought books in a library.
Politicians today have a strong grip on our social order. Everything once on the net remains there resulting in greater transparency, something that is anathema to Indian politicians who are obsessively secretive by nature. Knowledge is power, but in politics,
A persons power comes from another’s lack of knowledge. Internet based journalism has the potential to change the political fabric of our nation.
Mass education is the precursor for social evolution. Using the internet as a tool for mass education is doable. A single Gram panchayat based computer can provide a two way street for transmission of educative programs, with the lecturer located anywhere in the world.
This real time link is also a great asset for the agricultural community as the farmer no longer has to go via a middle man while selling his crop .He can get the best price for his crop by communicating with the dealer in the maandi via the net. Such an experiment has been successful in Haryana where wheat auctions are held online. Agricultural practices can also be influenced by the net as area specific weather and climate predictions can be known online .Hence India’s large farmer community can be benefited.
This explosion of the Internet has also brought a darker side to the revolution in global communications. Cyberspace contains information of all kinds, including that that should not be available at arms reach. This could range from gory disturbing images of murder to pornographic web sites. These are things that can be destructive to a society and detrimental to young surfers.
Privacy while on the net is one big con. By using a credit card or subscribing to a magazine, people provide information about themselves that is sold to marketers throughout the world.  With each website that we visit and download things from, we are leaving behind traces of our identity, and allowing access to our own computers through visible IP numbers. Computer viruses and worms can lead to denial of services and even system takeover. Indian economy and government is fast becoming computerized, with all kinds of records being kept in computer databases. A virus attack on these computer systems can lead to utter chaos in our society.
The constitution is the watch-dog of any society country. Since 2000, when the Indian Information Technology Act was first signed into law, it's been akin to a ticking time-bomb, primed and waiting to go off. The MMS case, the Pune spy cam case as well as the Anara Gupta CD case, provide concrete evidence of the lacunae in legislation. Mr. Avnish Bajaj of was a victim of this badly-drafted Act for having hosted the transaction of a porn CD produced from an MMS clip and offered for sale by an I.I.T student thereby violating Section 67 of the Information Technology Act (transmission of obscene material through electronic media).By analogy, the postmaster of a post-office that has delivered a pornographic magazine discreetly wrapped in brown paper should be liable to arrest and so should be the owner of a telecom network that has transmitted obscene calls.
We already had a pathetic record of verbal and physical violence against women and now the new technology has come to assist the perpetrators. Chat rooms have become safe havens for Cyber stalkers & Pedophiles .But blaming the telecom sector for access to porn is a fallacy. Porn is freely available in VCDs and tapes in every city. Pirated films are beamed into homes; illegal software can be bought easier than a pack of cigarettes. Are we even pretending this is not true? India’s urban society today is quickly becoming a nouveau riche group with an overwhelmingly couldn't-give-a-damn attitude towards the colour of money.
Words like fire-wire, Bluetooth, S.M.S, M.M.S, Broadband, etc are fast becoming the norm in urban India. Even rural India hasn’t been spared by the influx of technology .The Simputer experiment in Karnataka has proved that even rural communities can accept and use modern tools. The fall in telecommunication costs and restructuring of the telecom sector has led to most semi urban towns and even villages going ‘mobile’.
India’s mobile players are hoping that a picture is indeed worth a thousand words by introducing MMS, multimedia messaging service. The reduction in costs of GPRS enabled cell phones and introduction of 3G WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access) by cell phone operators has led to ever more increase in MMS usage. MMS has become an impersonal way of sharing material like jokes when one is unsure of people's reaction. It is a good way of relieving boredom especially when service providers offer free MMS schemes.
The same technology which allows MMS also allows internet usage from a mobile .This simply means that all the problems and advantages of the internet have just gone ‘mobile’. We're all familiar with these annoying social hiccups: a person running out of the conference room followed by a musical chime or the one-sided conversation during lunch at a formerly quiet restaurant.
This new technology of Internet and mobile communication was meant to strengthen our democratic freedoms. But like all other freedoms we have begun to misuse it. Our society is fast converging with what were supposedly US cultural norms. As recent incidents have shown, beset with a literally uncontrollable generation, the parents, school managers and social scientists have been playing a futile blame game in which there are no winners. Besides pointing fingers at each other, they also blame technology for the resident evil, not accepting the fact that access to much of it is allowed by moneyed and doting parents themselves. Technologies like the internet and MMS are here to stay .Indian Society hence need to evolve. The family and the school needs to canalize rational use of technology by their wards.
The morality of a particular use of a technology is up to the individual to decide. Adolescents today must be made aware by their elders of what to expect in cyberspace, something which was the responsibility of the peer group in the past, and how to react when they run into something bad. In the absence of effective monitoring, the teenager easily crosses the line of distinction and uses it destructively. Our IT laws need to be made more practical and simple .
~ Amey Kantak

Friday, November 1, 2013

Goa Jokes

The late 90’s saw the rise of  Churchill jokes with his famous quotes like "On what grounds. On Fatorda Grounds of course!" and "I'm not joking! I'm Churchill. Joaquim is my brother!"
Here is another classic :
Churchill is being interviewed on Goa Doordarshan.

"Sir, what is your opinion on Youth and Society in Goa?"
"Amche tornate Goenchen nav voir kaddtat. Te khuimcheai sportsan vantto gheun inam joddtat. Ani shikpak... ani sogglech toren bori asat. Society? Societichem uloich naka! Tanu melona, sakor melona..."

Saturday, May 18, 2013

How to Board a Moving Train

Ever tried boarding a moving train. I guess lots of people in Mumbai do it quite frequently on the crowded railway stations . Some may have done it  just because they reached the railway station late and had to run to catch the train. Well recently i came across a totally new way of boarding a train.

So how does one board a Moving Train?

Step 1 
Choose Strategic Spot where the train slows down at the turn just enough to be able to catch a handhold. Choose the train bogey which has its door open.
Step 1 -- Choose

Step 2 
Hold on to your dear life , a slip here can cost your life

Step 2 - Hold On

Step 3 
Haul your self onboard
Step 3 : Haul yourself up

This man made it look easy but the reality is it is very difficult
Place : Somewhere between Londa Station and Castle Rock Station
Photos Taken from : Poorna Express from Margao to Pune

You would ask why would it be necessary for the person to board a moving train like this. Well it is shear necessity as there are no other modes of transport out here. The nearest road front is a good 1 hr walk thru old jungle tracks.

Sunday, May 12, 2013

The Tatkal Ticket IRCTC Website Issues Saga

I am sure everyone  has a Tatkal Ticket IRCTC Website Issues Saga of their own. Just the other day i sat for booking a tatlkal ticket on goa expresson the IRCTC website and here is the ticket position by popsition snapshot of my endevor to secure three tickets on the site between 10am to 10:21 am 

My Tatkal Ticket IRCTC Website Issues Saga

  • 9:45am -- waiting for site to load
  • 9:46am -- Logged in
  • 9:47am -- hit plan my travel 
  • 9:48 am -- Session Expired :-(
  • 9:50 am -- waiting for my username and password to be acknowleged by the IRCTC website
  • 9:52 am -- connecting :-(
  • 9:53 am -- yes i finally connected 
  • 9:54 am -- plan my travel 
  • 9.55 am -- 503 error on train station name , Damn you  - IRCTC Website Issues Saga Begins , i take a risk and hit search 
  • 9:57 am -- connecting , waiting 
  • 9:59 am -- trains list is shown , i hit AC -3 
  • 10:00 am -- biting my nails seeing the java applet going round and round
  • 10:03 am -- i see 35 seats available and i hit book
  • 10:04 am -- waiting for  IRCTC Website to respond 
  • 10:05 am --  horray i see the booking list 
  • 10:06 am -- i fill the form and scroll down -- damn where the hell is the Capcha code 
  • 10:07 am -- biting my nails seeing the java applet going round and round for the capcha code 
  • 10:05 am -- i see the code , enter it click make payment
  • 10:07 am -- waiting 
  • 10:08 am -- i see the payment page 
  • 10:08:30 am -- Damn 6 seats left ( WTF -- i started with 35 seats just 5 mins back ) -- damn i am in a rat race now 
  • 10:09 am -- i see the options hit credit card  and select the gold category gateway 
  • 10:10 am -- i still have hope :-) - i enter my details and hit pay , site redirects to gateway
  • 10:11am -- money is charged on my credit card 
  • 10:12am -- i am still starring at a blank screen waiting for the irctc website to show me the fruits of my labor and my Tatkal Ticket IRCTC Website Issues Saga.
  • 10:13 am -- i see a small part of the website starting to load 
  • 10:13:30 am -- i have no more nails to bite .. 30% of the site is loaded , still no sms confirmation on my phone
  • 10:14am -- I am now the proud owner of 3 Talkal tickets . YES ALL CONFIRMED :-) 
  • 10:15 am  -- waiting for SMS of tickets , I logout as a good Samaritan, so thats others may also succeed :-)
  • 10:16 am -- SMS arrives :-) :-) 
  • IRCTC Website Issues Saga Ends

Classification of Banks & Payment Gateways based of success rate in the month of April 2013 on the IRCTC Website . Now you know which gateway to choose while booking tickets especially the tatkal tickets which seem to end quickly 

Gold Category ( Success rate >= 80%)
Silver Category ( Success rate between 70 - 80%)
Bronze Category ( Success rate < 70%)
Bank of Maharashtra
Vijaya Bank
Allahabad Bank
Central Bank of India

Monday, April 22, 2013

MBA Case Study - Creation of an Asian Production Network

In the early nineties, the US was the most important producer of computer hardware. U.S. PC makers needed low-cost, reliable sources of components and peripherals, and initially turned to Japan, with its well-developed electronics and components industries. The U.S. companies also wanted to move labor-intensive production to lower-wage locations, and needed cheap sources of simple components that were becoming too expensive to source from Japan. Their search led them to Asia's newly industrializing economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong, which were already making consumer electronics and electronic components. At the same time, those countries were looking to move into higher technology industries to sustain economic growth, and saw the emerging PC industry as providing just such an opportunity. The governments of Korea, Taiwan and Singapore all enacted national strategies to promote the creation of personal computer industries in the early 1980s and supported them with government spending and incentives for infrastructure development, R&D, technology transfer, education and training, and industry promotion.

This confluence of interests between U.S. companies and Asian countries led to a rapid growth in computer production in Asia, as U.S. companies developed a vast supply and manufacturing network throughout the region. Countries such as Taiwan, Korea and Singapore moved rapidly upstream from simple assembly and production of cheap components to challenge Japan's leadership in large segments of the PC market. Korea's Samsung moved into first place in memory chips, while Taiwanese companies took the lead in motherboards, monitors and other peripherals, and Singaporean companies such as Creative and Lancer ,controlled the world sound card market. Meanwhile, U.S. companies focused on their strengths in software, design and marketing, and leveraged the manufacturing capabilities of Asia to maintain their leadership in the PC industry

The rise of the Asian giants

The late nineties saw the rise of the tech triangle of China-Taiwan- Malaysia who with lower input costs such as labor virtually began controlling the hardware components markets. U.S companies such as HP, Gateway and Compaq continued to be market leaders but Asian brands such as Acer and Toshiba started making dents in their market shares. Asian companies were also better positioned to take advantage of the huge market potential in the Asian region. This rising power can be best demonstrated from the fact that a former hardware manufacturer Lenovo has taken over the IBM thinkcenter and thinkpad brands.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

MBA Case Study - History of PC Industry

From the time of its invention in the 1940s until the early 1980s, the computer industry was dominated by IBM, which controlled nearly half the world market for computers. This era, sometimes referred to as the systems-centric era, was marked by a few large vertically-integrated companies that produced many of their own components, developed their own software, and sold their computers through their own sales force. They concentrated on locking their users in to the companies' proprietary architectures thereby giving them single vendor (monopoly) status with their consumers. The introduction of the personal computer in the 1970s changed the monopoly. The mainstream computer companies scoffed at the PC as an underpowered toy for people who couldn't afford a real computer. However, when Apple Computer began selling PCs by the hundreds of thousands, IBM responded quickly by developing its own PC, giving the PC credibility as a business tool. Rather than build its PC entirely in-house, IBM followed the lead of Apple, Commodore and others by assembling components from outside suppliers. The de facto standards which allowed standardization of components were set when IBM introduced its PC in 1981 with an open architecture, and essentially set the stage for PCs.

In 1985, IBM allowed Microsoft and Intel to license their technologies to other companies when it contracted them to develop the OS and microprocessors for the IBM PC. Thus IBM soon faced hundreds of competitors making IBM clones and selling them at cut-rate prices, while Microsoft and Intel garnered the huge profit margins that IBM had been accustomed to in the mainframe business. While IBM had inadvertently given away control of its own creation, the open standards of the IBM PC architecture also lowered barriers to entry, allowing literally thousands of new companies to get into the computer business, making everything from chips to systems to software. By 1997, the 4- firm and 8-firm concentration ratios in the US had fallen to just 45% and 69% respectively clearly showing that early monopolies had turned oligopolistic.

A new, decentralized industry structure based on network economies was created in the PC industry, as companies specialized in market niches throughout the production chain. The computer industry in the mainframe era had been dominated by ten giants who controlled 65% of the market in 1975, with another 40 companies controlling 32%. The category "all others" accounted for just three percent of the market. By the 1990s, the industry was populated by thousands of firms, and many of the former market leaders had either gone bankrupt, been acquired, or were a shadow of their former selves.

The personal computer revolution of the nineties led to a dramatic change in the structure of the computer industry. Whereas the mainframe computer industry consisted of a few large, vertically-integrated firms such as IBM, NCR, Fujitsu and Hitachi, the PC industry was a horizontally segmented industry with thousands of firms competing at the different levels of the value chain. Most companies specialize in one market segment, such as disk drives, PCs or software, and even the smallest companies could find niches producing anything from cables and connectors to software and services. Some segments of the industry, such as disk drives and monitors, eventually consolidated to the point that a few firms controlled most of the market. And of course the microprocessor and operating systems markets became near monopolies for Intel and Microsoft. But other market segments remain wide open even today. For instance, the top ten PC makers still control only about 40% of the global market.

Saturday, January 26, 2013

Custom Blogger Post Titles

Lots of people have been asking me about custom blogger post titles template modification
here is how to do it

  1. Login into blogger --> select template option  --> Hit backup template and save the current template just in case if you fuck up you can revert it back later

  2. Once you have saved the copy of the template -- hit edit html and search for
  3. Replace this with 



save and you are done

repeat step 1 again just to be sure

Sunday, January 6, 2013

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